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CAMM Publishes Research on Development of Titanium Alloys for Additive Manufacturing


Use of Alloying to Effect an Equiaxed Microstructure in Additive Manufacturing and Subsequent Heat Treatment of High-Strength Titanium Alloys

Open Access Article -

This paper addresses the use of alloying additions to titanium alloys for additive manufacturing (AM) with the specific objective of producing equiaxed microstructures. The additions are among those that increase freezing ranges such that significant solutal undercooling results when combined with the rapid cooling rates associated with AM, and so be effective in inducing a columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Firstly, computational thermodynamics has been used to provide a simple graphical means of predicting these additions; this method has been used to explore additions of Ni and Fe to the alloy Ti–6Al–4V (Ti64). Secondly, an experimental means of determining the minimum concentration of these alloying elements required to affect the CET has been developed involving gradient builds. Thirdly, it has been found that additions of Fe to Ti64 cause the alloy to change from an α/β Ti alloy to being a metastable β-Ti alloy, whereas additions of Ni do not produce the same result. This change in the type of Ti alloy results in a marked difference in the development of microstructures of these compositionally modified alloys using heat treatments. Finally, hardness measurements have been used to provide a preliminary assessment of the mechanical response of these modified alloys.