Biomaterials is a growing field that focuses on the development of materials to improve the interface between technology and human tissue. Controlling neural responses to materials could aid in allowing effective recovery from spinal cord injuries. Tissue engineering is rapidly expanding as a treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, integrating discoveries from biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, and materials science to produce three-dimensional structures with specific properties that enable us to replace or repair damaged, missing or poorly functioning human organs. Biosensors are able to report on their immediate environment, supplying important information to doctors and scientists trying to develop new methods of treating illness or disease. Within MSE, the process of electrospinning has demonstrated considerable promise as a potential manufacturing technique providing the right balance of speed, cost and biocompatibility meeting many medical needs at the materials-tissue interface. Biomaterials research within materials science and engineering at Ohio State includes:
- Biosensors – injectable biosensors that allow for continuous monitoring of oxygen, glucose and lactic acid in vivo
- Drug Delivery – implantable capsules enabling long-term delivery of contraceptive compounds and other materials
- Interfaces – understanding cell-surface interactions and how they can be controlled to dictate subsequent biological responses
Manufacturing – mapping porosity of electrospun scaffolds as a means of creating advanced control over process conditions
- Bioresorbable metals and alloys for medical applications
- Biocompatible metals and bioceramics
- Biomimetic Elastomers—elastic polymers that mimic mechanical properties of the tissue and key functions of proteins found in the body
- Engineered Skin—electrospun collagen and collagen-synthetic composites have shown improved collagen strength and elasticity while allowing for easy application.
- Biomaterials for bone regeneration—Resorbable and inert metals to for use as fixation or joint replacement to healing reconstructed and grafted bone as well as materials for regeneration of bone such as resorbable metals and polymers for biomanufacturing and hydrogels for biofabrication.
- Microenvironments for Stem Cell Differentiation—engineering tissue construct microenvironment to direct stem cell differentiation.
- Biomaterials for Islet Delivery—as components of pancreas replacements, we are designing materials to preserve the function of islets after they have been harvested from a donor and to aid in the delivery of these islets within the recipient patient that will promote their long-term health and survival.
- Tendon Repair—Tissue-engineered constructs are being fabricated that will shorten the recovery time associated with tendon repair and also improve function.